In the last two posts we discussed retrospective exhibitions and how they are curated. Today we will discuss about biennales. Have you heard of Biennale before? Biennale is an Italian word for Biennial which means an art exhibition which is held once in two years. Venice Biennale is of the earliest biennales In the world. There are two three important factors which play an important role in a biennale. The location is the most important part of a Biennale. Why have a biennale in Venice and not in Florence or Rome? Venice was one of the important cities of Italy during the medieval period especially due its commercial and cultural activities. It was also an important hub of Renaisaance art. Even in the contemporary times Venice is a sought after destination because of ts beautiful waterbodies, buildings and history. Nevertheless it also faces its own challenges due to financial and environment crisis. Because of this unique blend of history, cultural activities, architectural marvels, and a cosmopolitanism Venice is seen as a perfect destination to hold an art exhibition of such a larger scale. Biennales are mainly known by the city names where it is held. Some important biennales are Gwangju Biennale, Hawana Biennial, Liverpool Biennial, Moscow Biennial, etc. In India too we have Kochi-Muziris Biennale which was started in 2012 and since have become a center of attraction of the world. It is held in the city of Cochin and sees the participation of a large number of public. After the establishment of Kochi-Muziris Biennale, there has emerged many biennials across India. The important ones are Pune Biennale, Bodhgaya Biennale, etc. Similar to biennials we also a format called triennials which happens once in three years. India also has a triennial conducted by Lalit Kala Akademi which is a format happening once in three years. It was started at 1968.
Every biennial and triennial appoints a curator. The curators decides the theme for the exhibition and invites artists from different parts of the world to join the exhibition. Unlike usual art exhibitions biennials have larger time gaps in between them, the format is bigger, the participation too is global. Once the artists are selcted based on their practice they are invited to visit the city and the spaces allotted for the exhibition. Mostly, artists make new art works based on their experience but these days some artists also show existing works. Kochi-Muziris Biennale is unique because it only invites artists to be curators. The first edition was curated by the founders of the KMB Bose Krishnamachari and Riyas Komu. The second edition was curated by Jitish Kallat. In this issue of Art1st’s “The Curator” series we will discuss Jitish Kallat’s “Whorled Explorations” curated for KMB in 2014.
The Curator #14
Curator : Jitish Kallat
Exhibition: Whorled Explorations, Kochi Muziris Biennale (Second Edition)
Jitish is one of the most important contemporary artists from India whose artistic presence has reached a global level. His exhibitions and artworks have featured in the most important museums and galleries of the world. Jitish was appointed as the curator of KMB. One important thing we have to know about Kochi-Muziris Biennale is that it is not inspired by one location. It draws its influences from two sites – Cochin and Muziris. Muziris is a historic site near to Cochin which was a port and a gateway to the world. It was an important trade destination and also had many foreign settlements. Biennale wanted to highlight this historic cosmopolitanism of Cochin and Muziris and how Kerala’s public sphere was shaped by these cultural exchanges.
The exhibition was titled as Whorled Exploration. Citing two historic currents from the 14th to 17th century—the maritime explorations of the Age of Discovery and the astronomical propositions made by the Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics—the exhibition draws upon a wide glossary of signs from this legendary maritime gateway. The project metaphorically exaggerates the gestures we make when we try to see or understand something: We either go close or move away from it in space; we also reflect back or forth in time to understand the present. Whorled Explorations draws upon these gestures of deliberation across the axes of space and time to present artworks that interlace the bygone with the imminent and the terrestrial with the celestial.
The participating artists were Adrian Paci / Aji V N / Akbar Padamsee / Andrew Ananda Voogel / Anish Kapoor / Annie Lai Kuen Wan / Aram Saroyan / Arun K S / Benitha Perciyal / Bharti Kher / Bijoy Jain / Biju Joze / Charles and Ray Eames / Chen Chieh-jen / Christian Waldvogel / Daniel Boyd / David Horvitz / Dayanita Singh / Dinh Q Lê / Fiona Hall / Francesco Clemente / Gigi Scaria / Guido van der Werve / Gulammohammed Sheikh / Hamra Abbas / Hans Op de Beeck / Hema Upadhyay / Hew Locke / Ho Rui An / Ho Tzu Nyen / Iqra Tanveer / Janine Antoni / Julian Charrière / K G Subramanyan / K M Vasudevan Namboodiri / Kader Attia / Katie Paterson / Khalil Rabah / Kwan Sheung Chi / Laurent Grasso / Lavanya Mani / Lindy Lee / Madhusudhanan / Manish Nai / Marie Velardi / Mark Formanek / Mark Wallinger / Martin Creed / Menika van der Poorten / Michael Najjar / Michael Stevens / Mithu Sen / Mona Hatoum / Muhanned Cader / N S Harsha / Naeem Mohaiemen / Nataraj Sharma / Navin Thomas / Navjot Altaf / Neha Choksi / Nikhil Chopra / Parvathi Nayar / Peter Rösel / Pors & Rao / Prajakta Potnis / Prashant Pandey / Pushpamala N / Rafael Lozano-Hemmer / Rajan Punalur / Raqs Media Collective / Rivane Neuenschwander / Ryota Kuwakubo / Sachin George Sebastian / Sahej Rahal / Sarnath Banerjee / Shahpour Pouyan / Shantamani Muddaiah / Shumon Ahmed / Sissel Tolaas / Sudhir Patwardhan / Sumakshi Singh / Sunoj D / Surendran Nair / Susanta Mandal / Tara Kelton / Theo Eshetu / Unnikrishnan C / Valsan Koorma Kolleri / Wendelien van Oldenborgh / William Kentridge / Wim Delvoye / Xu Bing / Yang Zhenzhong / Yoko Ono
Please see the interview with Jitish Kallat here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=clBJ92mmiWM
Also see the opening day video of KMB here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n8j8XFAO4ac
Artist Anita Dube is the new curator for the next edition of Kochi Muziris Biennale. Have a wonderful weekend.
- Premjish, Director-Outreach, Art1st